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Native-American Indian Prayer Wheel
"Konza", "Kanza", "Kansa", "Kaw" Indians
(also known as "Escansaques", "Alaho" - Kiowa name, "Anasaus", "Canceze",
"Cancezs", "Canchez",
"Canips", "Cans", "Cansa" "Canses", "Cansez", "Canzas", "Cances", "Canzez", "Caugh", "Cauzes",
"Caw", "Recansaques", "Escanjaques", "Escansaques", "Escanxaques", "Esquansaques", "Excanjaque", "Excausaquex", "Hutanga", "Ka Anzou", "Kah", "Kancas",  "Kances", "Kans", "Kansae", "Kansas", "Kanse","Kase",  "Kanses", "Kansez", "Kansies", "Kantha", "Kants", "Kanzas",  "Kanzeis", "Kanzes",
"Karsa", "Karsea", "Kasas", "Kathagi",  "Kausas", "Kauzau", "Kaws", "Kawsa", "Kawza", "Konaz",  "Konsa",  Konses","Les Pancake", "Mohtawas", "Motawas",  "Okames", "Okams", "Quans", "Ukasa", "Ukasak")
 
"People of the South Wind"
 
Last Full-Blooded Kaw Indian Buried In Omaha, Nebraska
  By Stacy Downs - The Kansas City Star    May 27, 2000
     

  In the 18th century, nearly 2,000 Kaw Indians made their home on the windy plains.  The people -- also known as the Kansa, Kanza or Konza -- gave the state of Kansas its name.
        On Thursday, May 25th, the last full-blooded Kaw Indian was buried in Omaha, Nebraska..
        William Mehojah, a graduate of Haskell Indian Nations University in Lawrence, Kansas; died Sunday, May 21st at the age of 82.
        His family believes that with his death, a link to the past has been erased.  Most of the 2,500 people on the Kaw Nation tribal rolls have only a fraction of Kaw blood.
        "He was a living treasure" said his son, William Mehojah Jr.; 51, of Chantilly, Virginia.
        In the early 1800s, the Kaw lived in an area covering what is now northeastern Kansas and extending across northwestern Missouri into Iowa.  Their hunting grounds lay to the west, stretching across Kansas and into Nebraska.
        In 1873, the U.S. government moved the tribe to a 100,000-acre reservation in northern Oklahoma.  Diseases, such as smallpox, had reduced the number of Kaw Indians to 700.  About 600 people live on the reservation today, according to the federal Bureau Of Indian Affairs.

William Mehojah 

       William Mehojah, born in 1917, grew up in a frame house on a land allotment in Washunga, Oklahoma.  His family farmed corn and other grains.  Mehojah's mother stressed that he should go to college so "he could work in an office somewhere," his son said.
         Mehojah graduated from Haskell in 1939.  He served in the Army in World War II, then worked for more than 30 years with the Bureau Of Indian Affairs in Montana, the Dakotas, Idaho and Arizona.  He retired in 1976.  He and his wife later moved to Omaha to be near a daughter.
        "He was a humble person and was considered to be wise," his son said.  "People always said he stood out and that there was something special about him".
        Haskell honored Mehojah in 1995, naming him alumnus of the year.  "He spoke to the graduating class in his simple, measured way, and from the heart," his son said.  "People often sought Mehojah for advice," his family said.  He was known as a quiet, Christian man who would walk outside in the mornings, face east and pray.
        Fredericka Mehojah, his wife of 57 years, said he golfed and was a good athlete.  He pitched for Haskell's baseball team, the university records show.  Mehojah also was a gourd dancer at powwows and made silver and turquoise jewelry.
        During his life, full-blooded Kaws left the reservation and usually married outside the tribe.  Mehojah's wife is Cherokee, and they have three children, seven grandchildren and two great-grandchildren.
        Only four full-blooded Kaw were left five years ago; Mehojah, his brother and two nephews.  By 1997, he was the only surviving full-blooded Kaw.  "He would say that it's a lonely spot to be in and it's sad." his wife said.

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* Note = a "normal" school is a school for training high school graduates to become teachers

12,000-5,000 BC  First people to live in Kansas were the Paleo-Indians.

1540s - Wichita and Pawnee Indians living in area that would become Kansas.

1542 - Father Juan de Padilla, a priest who had accompanied Coronado, returned to Kansas. He hoped to bring Christianity to the Indians. He was killed, however, by the Indians he tried to help. Father Padilla is said to have been the first Christian martyr in America.

1600s - French explorers & fur traders come down from Canada via  Mississippi (1700's) and up the Missouri (1800's); ally  themselves with the Kansa and Osage Indians.

1724 - M. Etienne Venyard, Sieur de Bourgmont, made contact with  Indians in present Doniphan County.

1725 - Fort Orleans is destroyed by Kansa Indians.

1763 - White Hair (Pawhuska) of Osage Tribe, who will be ggggreat-grandfather to Charles Curtis was born.

1764 - Development of Kansas fur trade by French fur traders with Indians.

1767 - White Plume (Nom-Pa-Wa-Ra) "He who scares all men" who will be great-great-grandfather to Charles Curtis was born.

1790s - Fur trading Chouteau family begin trading with Kansa Indians.

1800 - William Curtis was born Dec. 22, Charles Curtis' grandfather

1804 - Louis Gonville born, later married daughter Wy-he-see,  daughter of White Plume.

1804- 1806 = Lewis and Clark expedition passed through the Leavenworth  area. On July 4, 1904, at the location of present day  Atchison the group celebrated what was probably Kansas' first Independence Day. Charles Curtis' great-great-grandfather White Plume, gave assistance to the Lewis and Clark expedition.

1808 - Nov. 10, Treaty with the Osage, Articles of a treaty and concluded at Fort Clark, on the right bank of the Missouri, about five miles about the Fire Prairie, in the territory of Louisiana, between Peter Chouteau, esquire, agent for the Osage, and specially commissioned and instructed to enter the same with by his excellency Meriwether Lewis, governor and superintendent of Indian affairs, in behalf of the United States of America, of the one part, the chiefs and the warriors of the Great and Little Osage, for themselves and their nations.
        "The United States being anxious to promote peace, friendship and intercourse with the Osage tribes, to afford them every assistance in their power, and to protect them from insults and injuries of other tribes of Indians, situated near the settlements of the white people, have thought proper to build a fort on the right bank of the Missouri, a few miles above the Fire Prairie (Kansas?), and do agree to garrison the same with as many regular troops as the President of the United States may, from time to time, deem necessary for the protection  of all orderly, friendly and well disposed Indians of the Great and Little Osage nations, who reside at this place, and who do strictly conform to, and pursue the counsels or admotions of the President of the United States through his subordinate officers."

1810 - Permelia Hubbard was born, grandmother to Charles Curtis

1811 - George C. Sibley, government trader, works among Osage  Indians.

1815 - Louis Pappan born in Canada, grandfather to Charles Curtis.

Oct. 28, Treaty with the Kansa, A treaty of peace and friendship, made and concluded at St. Louis between Ninian Edwards and Auguste Chouteau, Commissioners Plenipotentiary of the United States of America, on the part and behalf of the said States, of one part; and the undersigned Chiefs and Warriors of the Kanza Tribe of Indians, on the part and behalf of their said tribe, of the other part.
        "The parties being desirous of re-establishing peace and friendship between the United States and their said tribe, and of being placed, in all things, and in every respect, upon the same footing upon which they stood before the late war between the United States and Great Britain, have agreed to do the following articles:
Article 1:  Every injury or act of hostility by one or either of the contracting parties against the other, shall be mutually forgiven and forgot.
Article 2:  There shall be perpetual peace and friendship between all the citizens of the United States of America  and all the individuals composing the said Kanza tribe, and all the friendly relations that existed between them before the was shall be, and the same are hereby renewed.
Article 3:  The undersigned chiefs and warriors, for themselves and their said tribe, do hereby acknowledge themselves to be under the protection of the United States of America, and of no other nation, power, or sovereign, whatsoever."

1818(?) - Julie Gonville, daughter to Louis Gonville, granddaughter to White Plume was born, and will be grandmother to Charles Curtis.

1820 - Two Presbyterians missions are established for the Osage Indians: the Union on the Neosho River and the Harmony on  Marais des Cygnes River.

The Federal government began moving the Five Civilized Tribes (Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, Choctaw and Chickasaw) of the Southeast to lands West of the Mississippi River.  Indian Territory included present day Oklahoma North and East of the Red River; as well as Kansas and Nebraska.

1822 - Aug. 31; Treaty with the Osage, Articles of a treaty, entered into and concluded at the United States Factory on the M. De. Cigue Augt. by and between Richard Graham, Agent of Indian Affairs, authorized on the part of the United States for that purpose, and for the Chiefs, Warriors, and Head Men, of the tribes of Great and Little Osage Indians, for themselves and their respective tribes, of the other part.  (See  year 1808)
        "Whereas, by the second article of the Treaty made and entered into between the United States and the Great and Little Osage nation of Indians, concluded and signed at Fort Clark, on the Missouri, on the tenth day of November, one thousand eight hundred and eight, it is stipulated that the United States shall establish at that place, and permanently continue, for all seasons of the year, a well assorted store of goods, for the purpose of bartering with them on moderate terms  for their peltries and furs: Now, we, the said Chiefs, Warriors and Head Mean, in behalf of our said Tribes, for and in consideration of two thousand three hundred and twenty-nine dollars and forty cents, to us now paid in merchandise, out of the United States Factory, by said Richard Graham, on behalf of the United States, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, do exonerate, release, and forever discharge, the United States from the obligation contained in the said second article above mentioned; and the aforesaid second article is, from the date hereof, abrogated and of no effect."

1825 - June 2,  Treaty with the Osage, Articles of a treaty made and concluded at St. Louis, in the State of Missouri, between William Clark, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Commissioner on the part of the United States, and the undersigned, Chiefs, Head Men and Warriors, of the Great and Little Osage Tribes of Indians, duly authorized and empowered by their respective Tribes or Nations.
        "The Great and Little Osage Tribes or Nations do, hereby, cede and relinquish to the United States, all their right, title, interest, and claim, to lands lying within the State of Missouri and Territory of Arkansas, and to all lands lying West of the said State of Missouri and Territory of Arkansas, North and West of the Red River, South of the Kansas River, and East of a line drawn from the head sources of the Kansas, Southwardly through the Rock Saline, with such reservations, for such considerations, and upon such terms as are hereinafter specified, expressed and provided for."

June 3, Treaty with the Kansa -
        The Kansans do hereby cede to the United States all the Land lying within the state of Missouri, to which the said nation have title or claim; and do further cede and relinquish, to the said United States, all other lands which they now occupy, or to which they have title or claim, lying West of of the said State of Missouri, and within the following boundaries; beginning at the entrance to the Kansas River into the Missouri River, from thence North to the NorthWest corner of the State of Missouri; from thence Westwardly to the Nodewa river, thirty miles from its entrance; from thence to the entrance of the big Nemahaw river into the Missouri and with that river to its source; from thence to the source of the Kansas river, leaving the old village of the Pania Republic to the West; from thence on the ridge dividing the waters of the Kansas river from those of the Arkansas, to the Western boundary of the State line of Missouri and with that line, thirty miles, to the place of beginning.

Aug. 10,  Treaty with the Great and Little Osage -
            Whereas the Congress of the United States of America, being anxious to promote a direct commercial and friendly intercourse between the citizens of the United States and those of Mexican Republic, and, to afford protection to the same, did, at their last session, pass an act, which was approved 3rd March, 1825, "to authorize the President of the United States to cause a road to be marked out from the western frontier of Missouri to the confines of New Mexico" and which authorizes the President of the United States to appoint Commissioners to Carry said act of Congress into effect, and enjoins on the Commissioners, so to be appointed, that they first obtain the consent of the intervening tribes of Indians, by treaty, to the marking of said road, and to the unmolested use thereof to the citizens of the United States and of the Mexican Republic; and Benjamin H. Reeves, Geo. C. Sibley, and Thomas Mather, Commissioners duly appointed as aforesaid, being duly and fully authorized, have this day met the Chiefs and Head men of the Great and Little Osage Nations, who being all duly authorized to meet and negotiate with the said Commissioners upon the premises, and being specially met for that purpose, by the invitation of said Commissioners, at the place called the Council Grove, on the river Nee-o-zho, one hundred and sixty miles southwest from Fort Osage; have, after due deliberation and consultation binding on the said Great and Little Osages, from after after this day:

White Hair (Pawhuska) who will be great-great-great grandfather to Charles Curtis dies. (actual year unknown)

1827 - Government sends Daniel Morgan Boone to teach agriculture  to Indians; Boone locates on land in what is now Jefferson  County.

Aug. 22; First white child born in Kansas was Napoleon Boone, son of Daniel Boone, at an Indian agency.

1828 - William Curtis married Permelia Hubbard, Aug. 21 (father & mother of Orren Arms {Captain Jack} Curtis)

1829 - Delaware Indians are moved to Kansas.

Ore Arms (Captain Jack) Curtis born, Father of Charles Curtis

1830 - May, The Indian Removal Bill of 1830 uprooted the Kickapoo,  Shawnee, Delaware, Potawatomie, Wyandot, Ottawa, Chippewa,  Iowa, Miami, Sac, and Fox tribes. An "Act to provide for an exchange of lands with the Indians residing of any states  or territories, for their removal west of the river Mississippi" was passed by Congress and signed by President  Andrew Jackson.

1832 - Kickapoo, Potawatomie, Kaskaskia, Peoria, Wea and Piankeshaw  Indian reservations are established in Kansas.

1834 - Indian Intercourse Act -  Indian Territory is the name applied to the country set aside for Native Americans

1836 - Sauk, Fox, and Iowa Indians are moved to Kansas.

1837 - White Plume, who will be great-great grandfather to Charles Curtis dies.

1839 - Louis Pappan marries Julie Gonville,  parents of Ellen Pappan, who is mother to Charles Curtis.

1840 - Miami Indians are moved to Kansas.

Ellen Pappan was born, future mother of Charles Curtis, daughter of Julie Gonville Pappan.

1843 - Wyandot Indians settle on reservation in eastern Kansas, establish city of Wyandot (Kansas City, Kansas).

1846 - Kansa Indians cede 2 millions acres of land and relocate southeast of Council Grove.

1853 - Wyandot Indians organize Kansas Nebraska into Provisional Territory and elect delegate to 33rd Congress; Congress fails to recognize the act and the delegate.

1854 - May; 2,000,000 acres of Delaware and Shawnee Indian land is made available to whites by public auction and pre-emption.

1859 - Feb. Orren Arms (Captain Jack) Curtis and Ellen Pappan married.

1860 - Jan 25, Charles Curtis was born in Eugene (now know as North Topeka) Kansas to Orren Arms (Captain Jack) Curtis and Ellen Pappan Curtis.

March 15, Charles Curtis was baptized at the Immaculate Conception in St. Marys, Kansas

Dec. 24, Annie Elizabeth Baird was born in Altoona, Penn. future wife of Charles Curtis.

1862 - Mar. 13th, Treaty with the Kansa Indians, previous treaty  to be amended  to provide that a fair and reasonable value of the improvements  shall receive certificates of indebtedness, shall be issued to him for an amount equal to the appraisement. (White Hair's son George White Hair, his mark is on this treaty)

June; Ottawa Indians in Kansas become U.S. citizens; heads of families are to receive 160 acres of land.

Sept. 2, Elizabeth Curtis, born, daughter of Ellen Pappan Curtis and Orren Arms (Captain Jack) Curtis, sister to Charles Curtis.

Dec. 22, Jerome A. Colvin born in Lima, Ohio, future husband of Elizabeth Curtis.

1863 - Mar.; Congress provides for removal of all Indians from Kansas.

Charles Curtis' mother Ellen Pappan Curtis, died, she was 23 years old. Place of grave is unknown. So his father Orren Arms (Captain Jack) Curtis left him in the care of his Indian grandmother Julie Gonville Pappan at the Kansa Indian Reservation at Council Grove. Orren Arms (Captain Jack) Curtis then signed up for the Union side of the Civil War, became a Captain.

1864 - Boyhood home of Charles Curtis at 905 North Van Buren St. in North Topeka was built by his grandfather William Curtis, a 12-room Victorian house on a large tract of Kansa Indian Land purchased a year earlier from Charles Curtis' maternal grandmother, Julie Gonville Pappan. Recently demolished by City of Topeka.

1865  - Treaty with the Osage, ceded land beginning at the Southeast corner of their present reservation , and running thence North with the Eastern boundary thereof 50 miles to the Northeast corner; thence West with the Northern line 30 miles; thence South 50 miles to the Southern boundary to the place of beginning, for $300,000.00 (White Hair's {son George} mark is on this treaty)

Civil War ends; Kansas's contributions to Union Army totals 20,097.

May; State census tallies 127,270 whites, 12,527 blacks and 382 Indians.

Sept.; Osage Indians sell to United States a tract 30 x 50 miles square, and cede strip 20 miles wide, partly in Kansas.

1867 - Legislature ratifies Fourteenth Amendment to United States Constitution, "All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and in the State wherein they reside."

1870 - Charles Curtis attended Lincoln School, was located at 5th and Madison in Topeka, while working in the livery stable during his spare time.

1870 - Kansas ratifies Fifteenth Amendment to U.S. Constitution, "The right of the citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any other State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude."

Treaty is concluded with Osage Indians for purchase of "Osage Diminished Reserve."

1872 - Congress authorizes removal of Osage Indians from Kansas to Indian Territory.

1873 - Charles Curtis (13 years old) was advised by his Indian grandmother Julie Gonville Pappan to leave the Indian Reservation at Council Grove, to abandon the tribe and "make something of himself. He went to stay with his other (English) grandmother Permelia Hubbard Curtis in Topeka.

1878 - Chiefs Dull Knife and Little Wolf of the Northern Cheyennes led their people in a flight from starvation on the reservation in Oklahoma to their homelands in Yellowstone, Wyoming. The trek climaxed on Sept. 27th when 284 braves, women and children made their final stand on the bluffs of Ladder Creek, now Beaver Creek, just south of Scott City State Park. This encounter with the U.S. Calvary was the last Indian battle in Kansas. The site - Squaws Den Battleground - drew its name from the pit in which the women and children were placed after helping to dig rifle pits for the warriors. The breastworks the Indians dug to withstand the attack by soldiers are still visible.

Charles (and his sister Elizabeth) Curtis were dropped from Kansa Tribal roll.

1881 - May 4; Charles Curtis, age 21, was admitted to the Bar after studying law while being a hack driver (taxi but using a coach)

1884 - Haskell Institute, a college school for Indians, is established at Lawrence, Kansas, by U.S. Government.

Charles Curtis became prosecutor of Shawnee county (until 1888)

Nov. 27, Thanksgiving, Charles Curtis married Annie Elizabeth Baird.

1886 - Jan. 6, Permelia Jeannette Curtis was born, to Charles and Annie Elizabeth Baird Curtis.

1887 - Feb. 8, the General Allotment Act for Indians (also known as the Dawes Severalty Act, named for its sponsor and author  Senator Henry Laurens Dawes) became law, prepared for Indian citizenship and to end the reservation system, inaccurately called the "Curtis" Act (usually by Indians, by people who favor the Indians, or are against Charles Curtis who was not even elected to the Kansas House of Representatives until 1892).
        Congressman Henry Laurens Dawes (1816-1903), author of the act, once expressed his faith in the civilizing power of property with the claim that to be civilized was to "wear civilized clothes ...... cultivate the ground, live in houses, ride in Studebaker wagons, send children to school, drink whiskey and own property."
    The Dawes Act sought to absorb tribe members into the national body politic. Allotments could be sold after a statutory period of 25 years, and surplus land not allotted was opened to settlers.
    To get on the Dawes Tribal Rolls, Native Americans had to "anglicize" their names, this "melting pot" chicanery allowed agents of the government, who were sent to the frontier to administer the Dawes Act, to slip the names of their relatives and friends onto the Dawes Tribal Rolls and thus reap millions of acres of land for their friends and cronies.

The Dawes Act
February 8, 1887-1914
U.S. Statutes at Large, 24:388-391  Chapter 119
(repealed 1934) see Meriam Report (1928)

        An act to provide for the allotment of lands in severalty to Indians on the various reservations, and to extend the protection of the laws of the United States and the Territories over the Indians, and for other purposes.

       Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That in all cases where any tribe or band of Indians has been, or shall hereafter be, located upon any reservation created for their use, either by treaty stipulation or by virtue of an act of Congress or executive order setting apart the same for their use, the President of the United States be, and he hereby is, authorized, whenever in his opinion any reservation or any part thereof of such Indians is advantageous for agricultural and grazing purposes to cause said reservation, or any part thereof, to be surveyed, or resurveyed if necessary, and to allot the lands in said reservations in serveralty to any Indian  located thereon in quantities as follows:

        To each head of a family, one-quarter of a section of land;
        To each single person over eighteen years of age, one-eighth of a section of land;
        To each orphan child under eighteen years of age, one-eighth of a section of land; and
        To each other single person under eighteen years now living, or who may be born prior to the date of the order of the President directing an allotment of the lands embraced in any reservation, one sixteenth of a section of land:

        Provided, That in case there is not sufficient land in any said reservation to allot lands of the classes above names in quantities as above provided, the lands embraced in such reservation or reservations allotted to each individual of each of said classes pro rata in accordance with the provisions of this act: And provided further, That where the treaty or act of Congress setting apart such reservation provides the allotment of lands in severalty in quantities in excess of those herein provided, the President, in making allotments upon such reservation, shall allot  the lands to each individual Indian belonging thereon in quantity as specified in such treaty or act; And provided further, That when the lands allotted are only valuable for grazing purposes, an additional allotment of such grazing lands, in quantities as above provided, shall be made to each individual.

        Sec. 2  That all allotments set apart under the provisions of this act shall be selected by the Indians, heads of families selecting for their minor children, and the agents shall select for each orphan child, and in such a manner as to embrace the improvements of the Indians making the selection, where the improvements of two or more Indians have been made on the same legal subdivision of land, unless they shall otherwise agree, a provisional line may be run dividing said lands between them, and the amount to which is entitled shall be equalized in the assignment of the remainder of the land to which they are entitled under this act: Provided, That if any one entitled to an allotment shall fail to make a selection within four years after the President shall direct that allotments may be made on a particular reservation, the Secretary of the Interior may direct such tribe or band, if such there be, and if there be no agent, then a special agent appointed for that purpose, to make a selection for such Indian, which selection shall be allotted as in cases where selections are made by the Indians, and patents shall issue in like manner.

        Sec. 3  That the allotments provided for in this act shall be made by special agents appointed by the President for such purpose, and the agents in charge of respective reservations on which the allotments are directed to be made, under such rules and regulations as the Secretary of the Interior may from time to time prescribe, and shall be certified by such agents to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, in duplicate, one copy to be retained in the Indian Office and the other to be transmitted to the Secretary of the Interior for his action, and to be deposited in the General Land Office.

        Sec. 4  That where any Indian not residing on a reservation, or for whose tribe no reservation has been provided by treaty, act of Congress, or executive order, shall make settlement upon any surveyed or unsurveyed lands of the United States not otherwise appropriated, he or she shall be entitled, upon application to the local land-office for the district in which the land are located, to have the same allotted to him or her, and to his or her children, in quantities and manner as provided in this act for Indians residing upon reservations; and when such settlement is made upon unsurveyed lands, the grant to such Indians shall be adjusted upon the survey so as to conform thereto; and patents shall be issued to them for such lands in the manner and with the restrictions as herein provided. And the fees to which the officers of such local land-office would have been entitled had such lands been entered  under the general laws for disposition of the public lands shall be paid to them, from any moneys in the Treasury of the United States not otherwise appropriated, upon a statement of an account in their behalf for such fees by the Commissioner of the General Land Office, and a certification of such account to the Secretary of the Treasury by the the Secretary of the Interior.

        Sec. 5  That upon the approval of the allotments provided for in this act by the Secretary of the Interior, he shall cause patents to issue therefor in the name of the allottees, which patents shall be of the legal effect, and declare that the United States does and will hold the land thus allotted, for the period of twenty-five years, in trust for the sole use and benefit of the Indian to whom such allotment shall have been made, or, in case of his decease, of his heirs according to the laws of the State or Territory where such land is located, and that at the expiration of said period  the United States will convey the same by patent to said Indian, or his heirs as aforesaid, in fee, discharged of said trust and free of all charge or encumbrance whatsoever: Provided, That the President of the United States may in any case in his discretion extend the period. And if any conveyance shall be made of the lands set apart and allotted as herein provided, or any contract made touching the same, before of the expiration of the time above mentioned, such conveyance or contract shall be absolutely null and void: Provided, That the law of descent and partition in force in the State or Territory where such lands situate shall apply thereto after patents therefor have been executed and delivered, except as herein otherwise provided; and the laws of the State of Kansas regulating the descent and partition of real estate shall, so far as practicable, apply to all lands in the Indian Territory which may be allotted in severalty under the provisions of this act; And provided further, That at any time after lands have been allotted to all the Indians of any tribe as herein provided, or sooner if in the opinion of the President it shall be for the best interests of said tribe, it shall be lawful for the Secretary of the Interior to negotiate with such Indian tribe for the purchase and release by said tribe, in conformity with the treaty or statute under which such reservation is held, of such portions of its reservation not allotted as tribe shall, from time to time, consent to sell, on such terms and conditions as shall be considered just and equitable between the United States and said tribe of Indians, which purchase shall not be complete until ratified by Congress, and the form and manner of executing such release prescribed by Congress: Provided however, That all lands adapted to agriculture, with or without irrigation so sold or released to the United States by any Indian tribe shall be held by the the United States for the sale purpose of securing homes to actual settlers and shall be disposed of by the United States to actual and bona fide settlers only tracts not exceeding one hundred and sixty acres to any one person, on such terms as Congress shall prescribe, subject to grants which Congress may make in aid of education; And provided further, That no patents shall issue therefor except to the person so taking the same as and homestead, or his heirs, and after the expiration of five years occupancy thereof of such homestead: and any conveyance of said lands taken as a homestead, or any contract touching the same, or lieu thereon, created prior to the date of such patent, shall be null and void.  And the sums agreed to be paid by the United States as purchase money for any portion of any such reservation shall be held in the Treasury of the United States for the sole use of the tribe or tribes Indians; to whom such reservations belonged; and the same, with interest thereon at three per cent per annum, shall be at all times subject  to appropriations of Congress for the education and civilization of such tribe or tribes of Indians or the members thereof. The patents aforesaid shall be recorded in the General Land Office, and afterward delivered, free of charge, to the allottee entitled thereto. And if any religious society or organization,  is now occupying any of the public lands to which this act is applicable, for religious or educational work among the Indians, the Secretary of the Interior is hereby authorized to confirm such occupation to such society or organization, in quantity not exceeding one hundred and sixty acres in any one tract, so long as the same shall be occupied, on such terms as he shall deem just; but nothing herein contained shall change or alter any claim of such society for religious or educational purposes heretofore granted by law.  And hereafter in the employment of Indian police, or any other employees in the public service among any of the Indian tribes or bands affected by this act, and where Indians can perform the duties required, those Indians who have availed themselves of the provisions of this act and become citizens of the United States shall be preferred.

       Sec. 6  That upon the completion of said allotments and the patenting of the lands to said allottees, each and every member of the respective bands or tribes of Indians to whom allotments have been made shall have the benefit of and be subject to the laws, both civil and criminal, of the State or Territory in which they may reside; and no Territory shall pass or enforce any law denying any such Indian within in its jurisdiction the equal protection of the law. And every Indian born within the territorial limits of the United States to whom allotments shall have been made under the provisions of this act, or under any law or treaty, and every Indian born within the territorial limits of the United States who has voluntarily taken up, within said limits, his residence separate and apart from any tribe of Indians therein, and has adopted the habits of civilized life, is hereby declared to be a citizen of the United States, and is entitled to all the rights, privileges, and immunities of such citizens, whether said Indian has been or not, by birth or otherwise, a member of any tribe of Indians within the territorial limits of the United States without in any manner affecting the right of any such Indian to tribal or other property.

        Sec. 7   That in cases where the use of water for irrigation is necessary to render the lands within any Indian reservation available for agriculture, the Secretary of the Interior be, and he is hereby, authorized to prescribe such rules and regulations as he may deem necessary to secure a just and equal distribution thereof among the Indians residing upon any such reservation; and no other appropriation or grant of water by any riparian proprietor shall permitted to the damage of any other riparian proprietor.

        Sec. 8  That the provisions of this act shall not extend to the territory occupied by the Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, Seminoles, and Osage, Miamies and Peorias, and Sacs and Foxes, in the Indian Territory, nor to any of the reservations of the Seneca Nation of New York Indians in the State of New York, nor to that strip of territory in the State of Nebraska adjoining the Sioux Nation on the south added by executive order.

       Sec. 9  That for the purpose of making the surveys and resurveys mentioned in section two of this act, there be, and hereby is, appropriated out of any moneys in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, the sum of one hundred thousand dollars, to be repaid proportionately out of the proceeds of the sales of such land as may be acquired from the Indians under the provisions of this act.

       Sec. 10  That nothing in this act contained shall be so construed to affect the right and power of Congress to grant the right of way through any lands granted to an Indian, or a tribe of Indians, for railroads or other highways, or telegraph lines, for the public use, or condemn such lands to public uses, upon making just compensation.

       Sec. 11  That nothing in this act contained shall be so construed  as to prevent the removal of the Southern Ute Indians from their present reservation in Southwestern Colorado to a new reservation by and with consent of a majority of the adult male members of such tribe.

1890 - Harry King Curtis born to Charles and Annie Elizabeth Baird Curtis.

1892 - April 1, Leona Virginia Curtis born, to Charles and Annie Elizabeth Baird Curtis.

Charles Curtis elected to Congress on Republican ticket.

1893-  The Dawes Commission, commission to the Five Civilized Tribes, created by the U.S. Congress under the Dawes Act (1887) with Congressman Henry Laurens Dawes (1816-1903).  The aim was the reorganization of the Indian Territory by securing the assent of the chiefs to the extinguishing of tribal lands titles and by allotting lands to individuals.

1895 - Charles Curtis was a delegate to the House of Representatives.

1896 - Charles Curtis proposed a bill that the mixed-blood children of white men and Indian women should have "the same right and privileges to the property and annuities of the tribe to which the mother belongs, by blood as any member of the tribe." Proposal failed in Congress.

1897 - December 7, bill proposed by Charles Curtis: HR 4214, "An Act for the Protection of the People of the Indian Territory, Providing for the Laws Laying Out of Towns, The Leasing of Coal and other Mineral, Timber, Farming and Grazing Lands, and for Other Purposes", the bill was referred to the Committee on Indian Affairs, where it died.

1898 - Charles Curtis and his sister Elizabeth are restored to Kansa Tribal Rolls.

January 17, bill proposed by Charles Curtis: HR 6702, "An Act for the Protection of the People of the Indian Territory, Providing for the Laws Laying Out of Towns, The Leasing of Coal and other Mineral, Timber, Farming and Grazing Lands, and for Other Purposes", the bill was referred to the Committee on Indian Affairs, where it died.

February 24 -  bill proposed by Charles Curtis HR 8581  "An Act for the Protection of the People of the Indian Territory, and for other purposes"  This bill passed June 28, but with 42 amendments added to it.

1902 - Charles Curtis (and his sister Elizabeth) and his children are all re-listed on the Kansa Tribal Rolls.

1903 - Charles Curtis left Congress to run for Senate but was defeated.

The Charles Curtis home of 905 North Van Buren, North Topeka, was substantially damaged during the flood of Kaw (Kansas) River.

1907 - Charles Curtis elected to United States Senate.

Charles Curtis purchased house at 1101 Topeka Blvd. in Topeka and lived there whenever he was in Topeka (when Congress was not in session), the House has been restored and does accept visitors for tours with prior notice.

1908 - Permelia Jeannette Curtis (daughter of Charles Curtis) graduated from Wellesly Women's College

1912 - Charles Curtis was defeated for re-election to Senate.

1914 - Charles Curtis was elected and returned to Senate.

1915 - Permelia Jeannette Curtis (daughter of Charles and Annie Elizabeth Baird Curtis) married Major Charles Peasley George in Topeka, Shawnee County.

1919 - July 9, Leona Virginia Curtis (daughter of Charles and Annie Elizabeth Baird Curtis) married Webster Knight II in Washington D.C.

1924 - Charles Curtis became Republican leader in Senate.

Indians finally received the right to vote.  (But not all states would allow Indians of any tribe to vote, there were many court-trials on a one-to-one basis, the last hold-out state was the state of New Mexico, in 1947, the state was forced by the federal government to allow the Indians in that state to vote)

Jun 20, Annie Elizabeth Baird Curtis died in Washington D.C.

1928 - Charles Curtis, (Topeka) Kansas U.S. Senator is elected Vice-President.

Aug. 17, Charles Curtis Day is celebrated in Topeka, Kansas.

Meriam Report (800 pages) A Group of 1001 Native Americans and prominent were charged by Congress to look into widespread allegations of corruption and abuse of the Dawes Act (1887). Reported massive fraud and misappropriation by the the very government agents sent to administer the Dawes Act.. The Meriam Report lead to the repeal of the Dawes Act although the repeal did not lead to land obtained through fraud being restored

1932 - At the Olympics in Los Angeles, Vice-President Charles Curtis gave the opening address.

Charles Curtis was nominated for Vice President on Hoover ticket, was defeated for re-election.

Sept. 3, Jerome A. Colvin, husband of Elizabeth Curtis (Charles Curtis' sister) dies in Topeka..

1933 - Charles Curtis announced establishment of his residence in Washington D.C. leaving the previous residence of 1101 Topeka Blvd. in Topeka.

1934 - Indian Reorganization Act written specifically to indemnify Native Americans for the abuses of the Dawes Act (1887) simply "grandfathered in" the existing deed and that was that.

1936 - Glen Cunningham, (Elkhart county & Indian) sets world record in one mile run.

Feb. 8; 10:25 am, Charles Curtis dies of a heart attack at his home in Washington D.C.

1942 - Grandson Charles Curtis George (of Vice-President Charles Curtis) graduated from West Point.

1943 - Aug. 16, Elizabeth Curtis Colvin Layton (Charles Curtis' sister) dies in Topeka.

1947 - The state of New Mexico was the last holdout to keep Indians from voting, the Indians within the state could vote in Federal elections by Federal law, but the state would not allow the Indians to vote in state elections, this was stopped.

1954 -  It had become clear that the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 was failing, implementation of the Act was plagued by the same incompetence and the corruption created by the Dawes Act (1887) also see Meriam Report (1928).

1975 - May 25, Ceremony scheduled for Charles Curtis grave site in Topeka, Kansas.

1994 - Oct. 21, a park was dedicated in Charles Curtis memory in Topeka, Kansas

1997 - Special mail cancellation to honor Charles Curtis, Jan. 25 to Feb. 24. See Memorials in Topeka, Kansas

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overview of Charles Curtis life

Web Site History/the designer

Timeline B :  The timelines of Kansas and the USA

Timeline C -  Major events and Famous Firsts

Biography ACharles Curtis and his extended family genealogy.

Biography B :  Charles Curtis (before going into Politics)

Politics  and Beliefs of Charles Curtis

Legacy   left by Charles Curtis

Memorials  and donations

Charles Curtis home in Topeka, Kansas

Signature Bldg.  New Kansas State Office Building named for Charles Curtis

Resources  and recommended books for reading.

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