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American Major events, Inventions and Famous Firsts
        I would like to thank Mr. Bob Koehler and his students of  Steele Elementary School of Tucson, Arizona, for helping to put this section together and giving me the information so it could be used on this web site.

Qualifications for the Presidency (and Vice Presidency) of the United States
            Constitution:  Article II, Section 1, Paragraph 5
    No person except a natural born citizen (or citizen of the United States, at the time of the adoption of this Constitution) shall be eligible to the office President; neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the age of thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a resident within the United States.

    "I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President, and will, to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States"

1752  Lightning Rod invented by Benjamin Franklin


March 5  - The Boston Massacre occurs when British troops fire into a Boston mob, who were demonstrating against British troops at the customs commission.  The first to fall was Crispus Attucks, a fugitive slave and merchant seaman near the front, followed by four other men amongst the forty-fifty patriots.  This event was later credited as the first battle in the American Revolution, which began five years later, and was used as an incident to further the colonists cause of rebellion.

April 12 - The Townshend Acts, duties on goods such as lead, paper, glass and tea enacted three years earlier, were repealed by British parliament on April 12, 1770 except for that on tea, thus continuing to raise opposition in America.  British Prime Minister Lord North, as well as parliament, maintained the tea tax, in order to show their supremacy.

July 1  - The closest encounter of a comet with earth likely occurs as the Lexell Comet passes at the closest distance in history, 3.4 million kilometers.  This comet no longer comes near enough to Earth to be seen due to gravitational pulls with Jupiter and may have been ejected from our solar system.


May - In Connecticut, the General Assembly directs the governor, Jonathan Trimball, to "collect all publick letters and papers which hereafter in any way affect the interest of this Colony and have the same bound together, that they may be preserved."

September 8 - The Mission San Gabriel in San Gabriel, California is founded by Fathers Pedro Cambon and Angel Somera, closing the gap between the established missions at Monterey and San Diego, and the new mission at San Antonio de Padua, also founded earlier in the year.  Due to its large production of crops and wines, the mission later became known as the “Pride of the Missions.”  Also, this year Juan de Anza established the first overlands route to California from Mexico.


May - The first independent Anglo-American government is founded in May by the Watauga Association in East Tennessee, a group of settlers needing mutual protection along the Watauga River.  The written agreement allowed for a five man court to act as the government.  Also is 1772, the Wataugans would negotiate a ten year lease with the Cherokee for land along the river.

June 9 - British customs cutter HMS Gaspee, charged with enforcing the Stamp Act of 1865 and the Townshend Acts, is lured aground off the coast of Warwick, Rhode Island on the shore of Narragansett Bay.  The next day, colonial sympathizers defy the king and torch the revenue ship.

November 2 - Samuel Adams organizes the Committee of Correspondence, a forerunner of the union of American colonies, that begins the American Revolution.  The meeting was held in Faneuil Hall, Boston
 and later repeated throughout the American colonies.


March - The House of Burgesses in the Colony of Virginia reacts strongly against British policies by setting up a committee to contact the other colonies about their common defense.

December 16 - When the English East India Company sought financial assistance, England allowed the company to ship surplus tea to America at low cost.  This rankled the American colonists, who resented the implementation of a single company controlling the tea trade, as well as the right of the British government to tax the colonies without their consent.  Meeting at the Old South Meeting House, Bostonians led by Josiah Quincy and Samuel Adams discussed the new British tax on tea and subsequently boarded three ships in the nearby harbor, tossing the 342 chests of tea overboard.  The Boston
 Tea Party caused Parliament to close the port of Boston and pushed the American colonies one step closer to war.


June 2 -  The Intolerable Acts, including the reestablishment of the Quartering Act, requiring colonists allow British soldiers into their homes, and the curtailment of Massachusetts self-rule, are enacted by the British government.  Later led to the 3rd Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, which prohibits the U.S. Army from doing the same.

September 5 to October 26 -  The First Continental Congress was held in Carpenter’s Hall in Philadelphia, protesting the Intolerable Acts.  The Congress, attended by all American colonies except Georgia, petitioned King George to stop the new regulations on Massachusetts, and called for civil disobedience and boycotts of British wares by the American Association.  No concessions were made by the King or English parliament.

The colonies of Rhode Island and Connecticut ban the further importation of slaves.


January -  there were 37 newspapers being printed in the American colonies.  Seven newspapers were published in Massachusetts; one in New Hampshire; two in Rhode Island; and 4 in Connecticut.  Three papers were published in New York City, with one additional New York paper published in Albany.  Nine were published in Pennsylvania; two in Maryland; two in Virginia (both at Williamsburg); two in North Carolina; three in South Carolina, and one in Georgia.

February 9 - The British government declares Massachusetts in rebellion.

March 23 - Patrick Henry addressed the Virginia House of Burgesses in St. John’s Church in Richmond, where he decreed, “Give me Liberty or Give me Death.”  His speech is often credited with convincing Virginia to permit Virginia troops to enter the Revolutionary War.  The crowd reacted to Henry’s speech with fervent cries, “To Arms! To Arms!”

April 18 - Two lanterns were hung from the steeple of Old North Church by sexton Robert Newman as Paul Revere and William Dawes rode through the night, warning patriots that the British were coming to Concord to destroy arms.  The next day, during armed resistence, 8 Minutemen were killed at Lexington and the British took 273 casualties on their return from Concord, starting the American Revolution.  This was a culmination of the months prior, as colonists began to gather arms and powder if fighting the British became necessary.  However, even after the patriot’s brave battle at Lexington and Concord, the majority of Americans were undecided whether war or reconciliation was the more prudent course of action.

June 15 - The Continental Congress appoints George Washington commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, sending him to Boston with the task to take charge of the ragtag militia there.


January 10 - Thomas Paine, and English writer, publishes his pamphlet “Common Sense,”touting the ability and right of America to create a democratic and free nation, winning public support for the cause of American independence from Britain with the sale of hundreds of thousands of copies.  Thomas Jefferson received a copy of “Common Sense” at his home Monticello, whose sentiments pleased him, and the course for independence and the Declaration to follow began.

July 4 - The Declaration of Independence, from the pen of Thomas Jefferson and his committee, was approved in the Second Continental Congress of the United States of America, held in Independence Hall (above), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.  It was influenced by many writers, including John Locke, and was emboldened by the notion that man had the natural right to change or overthrow the government that denied their rights.  Four days later, the Declaration of Independence was proclaimed publicly for the first time outside the Province House in Philadelphia, later to be dubbed Independence Hall, touching off a celebration that rippled through the city.  Liberty and freedom was celebrated amongst commoners and soldiers, who would soon fight to solidify its hold on the thirteen colonies.

September 22 - As a member of the Continental Army sent on an intelligence gathering mission behind enemy lines on Long Island, Nathan Hale, disguised as a Dutch teacher, was subsequently caught and executed by the British for spying.  In a speech before he was hung, the immortal words, “I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country,” were reportedly uttered, and reverberated through repetition throughout the colonies.  A statue of Hale now sits outside the Central Intelligence Agency in Washington, D.C.

September 7 - In the world’s first submarine attack, the American submersible ship invented by David Bushnell; "Turtle" attempts to attach a time bomb to the flagship of British Admiral Richard Howe’s ship HMS Eagle in New York Harbor.

December 25 to 26 - At McKonkey’s Ferry, General Washington and his 2,600 troops cross the Delaware River from Pennsylvania to New Jersey on Christmas Eve and Christmas Day and defeats 1,400 Hessians in the battle of Trenton.


January 3- General Washington and the 7,000 man Continental Army defeats British General Charles Cornwallis at Princeton, New Jersey.  This battle, combined with that of Trenton one week earlier, impressed upon other European nations that the Americans could combat the British Army.

June 14 - The Continental Congress adopts the Stars and Stripes as the national flag.  It would later fly on the battlefield for the first time on September 3rd at Cooch’s Bridge, Maryland.

July 26 - Americans held Fort Stanwix is besieged by British and Indian troops under the command of General Barry St. Leger.  The British are forced to withdraw after three weeks under the duress of the fort’s defenders, led by Colonel Peter Ganesvoort.

November 15 - The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union are adopted by the Continental Congress in Independence Hall.  It serves as the first constitution of the United States.

December 17 - After John Adams, elected commissioner to France by the Continental Congress, and Benjamin Franklin engage their support for the Revolutionary War, France recognizes the independence of the 13 colonies, signing treaties of alliance and commerce.  French involvement becomes the turning point of the war.

December 19 - After failing victory in the battles of Brandywine and Germantown, and in response to the British capture of Philadelphia,
George Washington marches his 11,000 man Continental Army into Valley Forge for the first winter encampment.


In an advertisement in a Kentucky gazette, a New Jersey stallion was called a thoroughbred, the first usage in the United States of that equine term.

February 5 - Friedrich von Steuben of the Prussian Army meets with the Continental Congress in York, Pennsylvania.  They direct him to join General George Washington at the winter encampment at Valley Forge to drill the Continental Army into an effective fighting unit while the British retain control of Philadelphia, only twenty miles away.  South Carolina also becomes the first state to ratify the Articles of Confederation.  

February 6 - France signs the treaty of Amity and Commerce with the United States, officially recognizing the new nation, and sends Pierre L’Enfant to be captain of engineers at Valley Forge.  Later, L’Enfant would be commissioned to design the capital city of the United States, Washington, D.C.

June 18 - British evacuate Philadelphia. 

December 28 - The first battle of Savannah, Georgia was lost to the British.


February 25 - Fort Sackville at Vincennes, Indiana is surrendered by British troops under the command of British Lt. Governor Henry Hamilton.  The militia under Lt. Colonel George Rogers Clark, bolsters the western claims in the American Revolution.

June 1 - Although currently a successful American general, Benedict Arnold is court-marshaled for civil authority disputes.  His sentence, however, was a light reprimand by General Washington.  Mad about the court-marshal and the new American alliance with France, Arnold became a traitor against the American cause when he plotted to transfer the fort at West Point, New York, for 20,000 sterling (approximately $1,000,000 today) that would effectively give control of the Hudson River to British forces.  His plot was uncovered, but Arnold escaped, then joined British forces and fought against the Continental Army.

September 23 - John Paul Jones and the Bonhomme Richard defeat the Serapis in the British North Sea.

December 1 - General Washington arrives at Morristown, New Jersey, where the Continental Army winters in the second season of the Revolutionary War.

December 25 - Nashville, Tennessee is founded by James Robertson as Fort Nashborough.


May 12 - Charleston, South Carolina falls to the British after an effective seige.

Prompted by poor vision both near and far, and tired of putting his glasses on and off, Benjamin Franklin invents bi-focals.

July 11 - French troops set foot on American soil at Newport, Rhode Island, to fight alongside the Patriot militiamen of the
Continental Army for American independence from Great Britain.

September 25 -  The march begins this date at Sycamore Shoals on the Watauga River (Tennessee) by the “over-mountain men” militia of the American Revolution under Colonels Charles McDowell, John Sevier, Isaac Shelby, and William Campbell as they move toward the Battle of Kings Mountain.

October 7 - Loyalist troops fighting for Britain are beaten at the Battle of Kings Mountain by the “over-mountain men,” who
kill the opposition leader British Major General Patrick Ferguson.  This battle reversed the southern fortunes of the British during the Revolutionary War.

1781 John Hanson (1715-1783) 1st "President" of the United States 

January 17 - At Cowpens, South Carolina, Brigadier General Daniel Morgan with his band of Patriot militia defeat the large force of British regulars under Lt. Colonel Banastre Tarleton.  This engagement in the southern sphere of the American Revolution provided a key victory for American forces.

March 15 - British troops under Lord Cornwallis gain at costly victory at the Battle of Guilford Courthouse in North Carolina at the expense of Major General Nathanael Greene in the opening salvo of the campaign that would lead to Yorktown. 

May 22 - Major General Nathanael Greene and Harry "Light-horse" Lee leads the Continental Army against British loyalists in a siege at Ninety-Six, South Carolina.  They are repulsed and forced to withdraw on June 18 when Colonel John Cruger leads British loyalists to victory against an attack of the Continental Army.

May 26 - The Bank of North America is incorporated in Philadelphia
by an act of Congress to help stabilize the issuance of paper currency.  It was capitalized in 1781 with $400,000.

September 26 - General George Washington and Rochambeau join forces near Williamsburg.  Two weeks later, on October 6, they begin the seige of Cornwallis at Yorktown. 
At the time, English troops numbered 6,000, American troops 8,846, and French troops 7,800.  On October 19, British forces under Lord Cornwallis surrendered to Washington’s American forces and their French allies at Yorktown, Virginia.  This would be the last military battle of the American Revolution.


January - The Bank of North America opens its doors and the Robert Morris, the superintendent of Finance recommends the creation of a national mint and decimal coins.

March 20 - Lord North resigns as British Prime Minister, leading the way for a New British cabinet agrees to recognize United States independence.

June 20 - The Bald Eagle is adopted by Congress as the national bird.

July 11 - British troops begin to leave United States' soil, evacuating Savannah, Georgia.  On December 14, they would continue their evacuation by leaving Charleston, South Carolina.

November 7 - British Parliament agrees to the recognition of U.S. independence.   A preliminary peace treaty, later formalized as the "Treaty of Paris" is signed between American and British officials in Paris on November 30.

1783 Elias Boudinot 2nd "President" of the United States

April 19 - Congress ratifies the preliminary pace treaty, ending the Revolutionary War.

Massachusetts Supreme Court outlaws slavery, citing the state Bill of Rights “all men are born free and equal.”

September 3 - In Paris, France, John Adams leads an American delegation and signs the peace treaty officially ending the Revolutionary War between the United States and Britain.

November 3 - Army is ordered disbanded by General George Washington.  After the British leaves New York City on November 25, Washington bids goodbye to his officers at Fraunces Tavern in New York City on December 4.

Noah Webster publishes the American Spelling Book, a bestseller.  More than a million copies are sold of "Webster's Dictionary."  Webster's Dictionary is credited for standardizing spelling and pronunciation in the United States of America.

1784 Thomas Mifflin 3rd  "President" of the United States

January 14 - Congress ratifies the final peace treaty between Great Britain and the United States, ending the conflict that would give America its freedom.

March 1 - All children born after this date in 1984 in Rhode Island are free.  Rhode Island’s passage of its Emancipation Act provided for the gradual abolishment of the right to hold slaves.

September 21 - The Pennsylvania Packet & General Advertiser is published, the first successful daily newspaper in the United States.

By the end of 1784, trade with Great Britain had returned as Britain receives its first bales of imported American cotton.

1785 John Hancock 4th "President" of the United States

July 6 - The United States adopts a decimal coinage system, with the dollar overwhelmingly selected as the monetary unit, the first time any nation has done so.

August 23 - Oliver Hazard Perry, American naval officer, is born.

Stewart Dean, the most famous navigator of Albany, New York, sailed from Albany to China. Dean, on the private schooner Nimrod, had been captured by the British at St. Kitts in 1782, and later released.

1786 Nathan Gorman 5th "President" of the United States

August 17 - American frontiersman David "Davy" Crockett is born.

September 11-14 - Five state delegates at a meeting in Annapolis, Maryland call for Congress to hold a convention in Philadelphia in order to write a constitution for the thirteen states.

John Fitch invents the steamboat, launching it on the Delaware River in 1787 with six large paddles, like an Indian canoe, that was powered by a steam engine.

The Indian nation of the Choctaw, originally located in the southeastern states of Mississippi, Alabama, and Louisiana and known as one of the five civilized tribes, sign the first of nine peace treaties between the United States and the tribe.

Rhode Island farmers struck against merchants who refused to accept the depreciated paper currency.

1787   Arthur St. Clair 6th "President" of the United States

January 25 - In Massachusetts, six hundred debt-ridden farmers, led by Daniel Shays, revolt against their creditors and high Massachusetts taxes.  Faced with imprisonment and the loss of their farms for not paying their debts, they engage in Shays’s Rebellion, but it fails when state militia intervene.  Daniel Shays would escape to Vermont with the death penalty on his head, but later would be pardoned for his actions.

May 25 - With George Washington presiding, the Constitutional conventions opens in Philadelphia’s Independence Hall.

July 5 - A compromise during the Constitutional Convention proposed by Roger Sherman of Connecticut solves the problem of the amount of votes each state would receive in Congress.  A bicameral legislature would be enacted, with equal votes for the Senate and proportional representation based on population in the House of Representatives.

July 13 - The Northwest Ordinance, which determined a government for the Northwest Territory of the United States (north of Ohio River and west of New York), was adopted by the Continental Congress.  It guaranteed freedom of religion, school support, and no slavery, plus the opportunity for statehood.

September 17 - Delegates to the Constitutional Convention adopt the Constitution.     

Dec. 7 - 1st State of United States  Delaware 
Dec. 12 - 2nd State of United States  Pennsylvania 
Dec. 18 - 3rd State of United States New Jersey

1788 Cyrus Griffin 7th "President" of the United States     

Jan. 2 - 4th State of United States   Georgia 

 Jan. 9 - 5th State of United States  Connecticut

   Feb. 6 - 6th State of United States   Massachusetts

March 21 - Twenty-five percent of the population of New Orleans perish in a tragic fire that destroyed 856 buildings and left the majority of the city in ruins.    

 April 28 - 7th State of United States  Maryland     

May 23 - 8th State of United States  South Carolina

June 21 - Ratification by New Hampshire of the United States Constitution, the 9th state to do so, indicates adoption of the document by the United States.

John Fitch begins to operate passenger service from Philadelphia to Burlington, New Jersey on a sixty foot steamboat, which proved unprofitable.

June 25 - 10th State of United States   Virginia 
July 26 - 11th State of United States  New York

1789 -1797
1st President George Washington (b. 1732-d. 1799)  Federalist Party,  is the 1st President under the Constitution that is followed today
 Vice-President John Adams (b. 1735 -d.  1826) Federalist Party

February 4 - The 1st Congress meets in Federal Hall, New York City with regular sessions beginning two months later on April 6.  Frederick A. Muehlenberg becomes the first Speaker of the newly formed House of Representatives.

March 4 - In Federal Hall, New York City, a converted Customs House, the government of the United States under the United States Constitution begins to act.  The U.S. Constitution is declared to be in effect. The Senate convened for the first time at New York City's Federal Hall. On April 6th, it achieved its first quorum and proceeded to elect a doorkeeper, secretary, and chaplain.

April 30 - The 1st President, George Washington, is inaugurated in New York City.  He had been chosen president by all voting electors (there was no direct presidential election) with John Adams elected Vice President.

Sept 22 Congress authorized the office of Postmaster General

September 24 - The Federal Judiciary Act is passed, creating the Supreme Court.

September 25 - The Bill of Rights is submitted to the states by Congress.The first (actually the second) Congress adopted 12 Amendments to the Constitution and sent them to the states for ratification, 10 of them became the Bill of Rights.

Nov. 21 - 12th State of United States  North Carolina
Nov. 26 - This day of Thanksgiving was set aside to observe the adoption of the Constitution of the United States.

1790  May 29 - 13th State of United States  Rhode Island
        1st US Patent issued to William Pollard of Philadelphia, his machine roves and spins cotton.
        Dec. 6, Congress began a ten-year residence in Philadelphia, pending construction of a national capital in Washington D.C.

2nd President John Adams (b. 1735-d. 1826) Federalist Party
Vice-President Thomas Jefferson (b. 1743-d. 1826) Democrat (now known as Republican) Party

1791  March 4 - 14th State of United States  Vermont

1792  June 1 - 15th State of United States  Kentucky

1794  Feb. 28; the Senate refused to seat a duly elected member, Albert Gallatin of Penn. -- the first contested election in Senate history.
Cotton Gin invented by Eli Whitney, combs and deseeds cotton bolls.

1795   The Senate approved Jay's Treaty on June 24.
        Dec. The Senate opened its legislative sessions to the public. The previous year, the Senate held its first public session to determine whether to seat Albert Gallatin, senator-elect from Penn. and voted to end the practice of holding legislative sessions behind closed doors.
        Dec. 15; John Rutledge became the first Supreme Court nominee to be rejected by the Senate.

1796  June 1 - 16th State of United States  Tennessee

1797  Interchangeable Parts standardized on muskets by Eli Whitney
        March 25; President John Adams exercised his right, for the first time; to call an "extraordinary session" of Congress.
        William Blount of Tenn. became the first senator to be expelled on July 8th.

1798  Dec. 17 - Senate convened its first impeachment trial -- of Senator William Blount.

1800  Nov. 17 - Senate took up residence in the north wing of the unfinished Capitol in Washington D.C. and achieved its first quorum in the new capital on Nov. 21.

3rd President Thomas Jefferson (b. 1743-d. 1826)  Democrat (now known as Republican) Party
Vice-President Aaron Burr (b. 1756-d. 1836) Democrat (now known as Republican) Party
Vice-President George Clinton (b. 1739-d. 1812) Democrat (now known as Republican) Party

1801  Steam-Powered Pumping Station invented by Fairmount Water Works; harnesses power to provide water for city of Philadelphia

1802  Jan. 5th; Senate permitted admission of stenographers and note takers to the Chamber floor.

1803  March 1 - 17th State of United States  Ohio
        Spray Gun invented by Dr. Alan de Vilbiss of Toledo, Ohio; to replace swabs as the method of applying medication to oral and nasal passages.

1804  March 12th; Senate convicted Federal Judge John Pickering and removed him from office, the first conviction following an impeachment trial.

1805    Amphibious Vehichle invented by Oliver Evans; called "Orukter Amphilbolos"
        March 2nd; Vice-President Aaron Burr delivered his farewell address to the Senate; while under indictment for the murder of Alexander Hamilton in a duel.

1806  Coffee Pot with metal sieve, invented by Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford

1807  Steamboat invented by Robert Fulton (b. 1765-d. 1815)
        Nov. 4th; Senate created a 3-member committee to audit and control the contingent expenses of the Senate, as proposed by Senator John Quincy Adams.

4th President James Madison (b. 1751-d. 1836) Democratic (now known as Republican) Party
Vice-President George Clinton (b. 1739-d. 1812 died in office) Democratic (now known as Republican) Party
Vice-President Elbridge Gerry (b. 1774-d. 1814 died in office) Democratic (now known as Republican) Party

1812  April 30 - 18th State of United States  Louisiana

1813   Armored Warship "Demolos" by Robert Fulton, sails

1814  Plough created by John Jethro Woods of Poplar Ridge, New York
        April 22th; Secretary of the Senate Samuel A. Otis died; having served as secretary for 25 years without missing a day on the job.
        Aug. 24th;  British troops set fire to the Capitol building (War of 1812)

1816   Dec. 11 - 19th State of United States  Indiana
        Senate established its system of permanent (standing) members

5th President James Monroe (b. 1758-d. 1831) Democratic (now known as Republican) Party
Vice-President Daniel D. Tompkins (b. 1774-d. 1825) Democratic (now known as Republican) Party

1817  Dec. 11 - 20th State of United States  Mississippi
        Erie Canal plan proposed, 363 miles long, digging began.

1818  Nov. 16; Senate swore in a 28 year old person, violating the Constitution's requirements that senators be at least 30 years old.  John H. Eaton (R-TN) still holds the record for the youngest senator.
        Dec. 3 - 21st State of United States   Illinois
        Profile Lathe invented by Thomas Blanchard of Middlebury, Connecticut; does the work of 13 men, helps to lower wood prices.

1819  Dec. 6th; Senate occupied its newly constructed chamber that will serve as its home until 1859.
        Dec. 14 - 22nd State of United States  Alabama

1820  March 5th:  Senate agreed to the "Missouri Compromise"
        March 15 - 23rd State of United States   Maine

1821  Aug. 11 - 24th State of United States  Missouri

1824  Dec. 6th; First issue of Register of Debates in Congress appeared, providing the first consistent coverage of Senate debates.
        Dec. 9th; Senate received the Marquis de Lafayette, who was given a seat of honor to the right of the presiding officer.

6th President John Quincy Adams (b. 1767-d. 1848) (son of President John Adams)  Democratic (now known as Republican) Party
Vice-President John Caldwell Calhoun
        Erie Canal completed, "Senaca Chief" makes inaugural run.

1825  March 9th; Senate defeated a treaty with Colombia on suppression of the African slave trade.

1826  Funeral services for Senator John Gaillard of South Carolina were held at Congressional Cemetery in Washington D.C.; the first public payment of funeral expenses. (Is this still effect today???)

1827  Dec. 17th; Senate directed its secretary to "cause seats to be prepared for the accommodation of the Reporters of the proceedings of the Senate". Reports recording the proceedings for the Register of Debates in Congress had complained that their inability to hear distinctly resulted in numerous errors producing "great anxiety among those whose interests seemed likely to be affected".

1829  Dec. 7th; Senate appointed its first page-- nine year old Grafton Hanson, the grandson of Senate Sargeant-at-Arms Mountjoy Bayly.

7th President Andrew Jackson (b. 1767-d. 1845)  Democratic Party Vice-President John Caldwell Calhoun (b. 1782-d. 1850) (resigned)   Democratic Party
Vice-President Martin Van Buren (b. 1782-d. 1862)

1831  McCormick Reaper fails to catch on, McCormick sold the 1st unit about 1840; by 1844, only 50 had sold; McCormick moves to Chicago, by 1871 his company was selling 10,000 reapers per year.

1833  March 19th; Senate returned to an earlier practice of electing committees by ballot of all members.

1834  Walter Hunt invents the first lock-stitch sewing machine, but loses interest and does not patent his invention. Later, Elias Howe secures patent on an original lock-stitch machine; but fails to manufacture and sell it. Still later, Isaac Singer infringes on Howe's patent to make his own machine, which makes Singer rich.
        Walter Hunt also invents the safety pin, which he sells the patent outright for $400.
        March 28;  Senate "censured" President Andrew Jackson for unsurping congressional power. When Jackson's allies regained control of the Senate in 1837, they "expurged" the censure resolution.
        June 24th; For the first time, the Senate rejected a cabinet nomination -- that of Roger Taney to be treasury secretary.

1835  Dec. 7th; Senate for the first time organized its committee system on the principle that the majority party should chair the committees and control a majority of the seats on most panels.

1836   Feb. 17th; Senate reserved 1/3rd of its chamber's circular gallery for the exclusive use of women.
        March 15th; Senate confirmed Roger B. Taney as Chief Justice of the United States. (?same Roger Taney that was rejected by Senate for cabinet nomination to be treasury secretary?)
        June 15 - 25th State of United States  Arkansas
        "Six-Shooter" revolver invented by Samuel Colt.

1837 Jan. 26 - 26th State of United States  Michigan
        Electrical Power Tools invented by Thomas Davenport of Brandon., Vermont.

8th President Martin Van Buren (b. 1782 -d. 1862) Democratic Party
Vice-President Richard Mentor Johnson (b. 1780-d. 1850) Democratic Party

1840 Collapsible metal squeeze tube invented by John Rand, first used for artist pigments.

Mar. 3, 1841 - April 4, 1841
9th President  William Henry Harrison (died in office - illness) (b. 1773-d. 1841) Whig Party
Vice-President John Tyler (b. 1790-d. 1862) Whig Party

1841 Feb. 18th;  Senate conducted it first continuos filibuster over the issue of dismissal of the printers of the Senate. The filibuster continued until March 11.  The first extended filibuster, debating the establishment of a national bank, began on June 21 and lasted 14 days.
        July 8th;  Senate amended Rule 47, removing reporters from the floor of the Senate chamber and placing them in the eastern gallery, then known after as the "press gallery".

10th President John Tyler (b. 1790-d. 1862) Whig Party
Vice-President none

1842  Ether Anesthesia is 1st used in operation by Crawford Williamson Long on James Venable, to remove a tumor from his neck.

1843  Vulcanized Rubber, originally used as erasers, Charles Goodyear perfects the process for "vulcaning" rubber for tires.

1844  Telegraph invented by Samuel Finley Breese Morse, 1st message, Supreme Court chambers to Baltimore is  "What hath God wrought?"

11th President James Knox Polk (b. 1795 -d. 1849) Democratic Party
Vice-President George Mifflin Dallas

1845  March 3 - 27th State of United States  Florida
        July 1st; David Levy Yulee (D.- FL) became the first Jewish senator to serve in the U.S. Senate .

1845  Dec. 29 - 28th State of United States  Texas

1846  Dec. 28 - 29th State of United States  Iowa
        In the Senate, members began to sit together in the Senate chamber according to party affiliation.
        The Senate began to make committee assignments based on recommendations of its political party caucuses rather than separate balloting of the full Senate.

1847  Dec. 3rd; Senate chamber was lit with gas for the first time, providing "light enough to write by and read the finest print in any part of the chamber".

1848  March 26th; Senate arrested New York Herald correspondent John Nugent, in a futile effort to get him to reveal who leaked the still-secret treaty ending the war with Mexico. After sleeping several weeks of confinement in the Committee on Territories room, with evening trips to the Sargeant-at-Arm's home for dinner and a night's sleep, Nugent was set free on April 28th.
        May 29 - 30th State of United States  Wisconsin

12th President Zachary Taylor (died in office - illness) (b. 1785 -d. 1850)  Whig Party
Vice-President Millard Fillmore (b. 1800-d. 1874)

1850  March 7th; Senator Daniel Webster delivered one of the most notable speeches in Senate history, his classic three-hour oration set forth a defense of the Union and called on Northerners to respect slavery in the South. Moderates in all sections praised his remarks, while northern abolitionists charged he had sold his soul to the devil.
        Sept. 9 - 31th State of United States  California

13th President Millard Fillmore (b. 1800-d. 1874) Whig Party
Vice-President none

1853  Dec. 12th;  Senate readopted Rule 34, specifying for the first time the number of members assigned to each committee.

14th President Franklin Pierce (b. 1804-d. 1869) Democratic Party
Vice-President William Rufus de Vane King (b. 1786-d. 1853 died in office) Democratic Party

1855  Senate allowed its major committees to hire clerical staff.

1856  May 19th;  Senator Charles Sumner delivered his "Crimes Against Kansas" speech, prompting the violent attack on his person by Representative Preston Brooks on May 22.

15th President James Buchanan (b. 1791 -d. 1868) Democratic Party
Vice-President John Cabell Breckenridge (b. 1821-d. 1875) Democratic Party

1858  May 11 - 32nd State of United States   Minnesota

1859  Jan. 4th;  Senate occupied its current chamber for the first time.
        Feb. 14 - 33rd State of United States  Oregon
        Sept. 16th;  Senator David Broderick became the first and only sitting senator to die in a duel.

1860 - Pony Express service began between Missouri and California
December 20
        South Carolina, first state to secede from the Union
        Charles Curtis born in U.S. Kansas Territory, January 25.  (1st Vice-President born West of Mississippi River)

16th President Abraham Lincoln (died in office - assassinated) (b. 1809 -d. 1865) Republican Party
Vice-President Hannibal Hamlin (b. 1809-d. 1891) Republican Party
Vice-President Andrew Johnson (b. 1808-d. 1875) National Union (Republican Party)

1861-1865  War between the states (aka Civil War) between the North and the South

1861  Jan. 21st;  Senator Jefferson Davis delivered his farewell address to the Senate before leaving the chamber to become President of the Confederacy
        Jan. 29 - 34th State of United States   Kansas 

1862-1877 - Disease, (germ theory) by Louis Pasteur, France

1863  June 20 - 35th State of United States   W. Virginia
        President Lincoln proclaimed the first National Thanksgiving Day

1864  Jan. 25th;  Senate adopted a rule requiring senators and the Secretary of the Senate to take a loyalty oath.
        Oct. 31 - 36th State of United States   Nevada

1865 -  Transatlantic Cable completed
            13th Amendment, abolishing slavery
            Antiseptic Surgery invented by Joseph Lister

17th President Andrew Johnson (b. 1808 -d. 1875) Democratic Party
Vice-President none

1866 - Mary Walker, First woman to receive the Medal of Honor. She was a Civil War surgeon.
            Aluminum manufacture (by electrolytic action) Charles M. Hall, USA
           July 25;  Senate passed legislation, regulating election of senators by state legislatures.

1867  March 1 - 37th State of United States  Nebraska
        March 6th; Senate created a Committee of Appropriations (in a move toward greater institutional efficiency) so that legislative committees would be no longer be responsible for appropriating as well as authorizing funds.
        April 9th;  Senate approved the Alaska purchase treaty.
        Lucy Hobbs Taylor, first woman in the USA to become a certified dentist.
            Dynamite discovered by Alfred Noble, Sweden
            Electric Lamp; (fluorescent lamp) A E Becquerel, France

1868 - Dry Cell Battery invented by George LeClande
            Air Brake invented by George Westinghouse, USA
            Antiseptic used in surgery by Joseph Lister, England
           March 30th; Andrew Johnson impeachment trial began, and ended on May 16th when the Senate acquitted President Johnson by a one-vote margin.

18th President Hiriam Ulysses Simpson Grant (b. 1822-d. 1885) Republican Party
Vice-President Schuyler Colfax (b. 1823-d. 1885) Republican Party
Vice-President Henry Wilson (original name- Jeremiah Jones Colbath) (b. 1812-d. 1875 died in office) Republican Party

1869 -  Transcontinental Railroad completed
            Chewing Gum was patented by William Semple
            DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) discovered by Friedrich Meischer, Germany

1870 - Feb. 23th; Hiram Revels of Mississippi presented his credentials, he was sworn into office, first African-American senator.
           Chewing gum (chicle-based) Thomas Adams, USA

1871  March 10th; In response to a growing number of contested elections, the Senate created a Committee on Privileges and Elections to handle these contentions and often complex disputes.  Four days later, the Senate sent to the committee pending cases from Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina and Texas.
        Aug. 1st;  Senate established its own library, independent of the Library of Congress, appointed its first librarian George S. Wagner.

1872 - Victoria Woodhall, first woman to run for President of USA
            World's first National Park dedicated in Yellowstone

1873 - Jesse James committed the world's first train robbery in Adair, Iowa
           Barb wire (most popular) invented by Joseph E. Glidden, USA
           From the Senate, the first Congressional Record was published March 4th.

1874 -  Levi Strauss blue jeans with copper rivets were priced at $13.50 for a dozen
            Electric cooking utensil (first) patented by St. George Lane-Fox,
Nov  7 - The Republican Party was 1st symbolized as an elephant in a cartoon, drawn by Conde Nast in Harper's Weekly

1875 - Internal Combustion Engine invented by Siegfried Marcus
        March 7th; seven years after the Senate acquitted him in an impeachment trial, Andrew Johnson became the first former president to serve as a senator.

1876  Aug. 1 - 38th State of United States  Colorado
        Aug. 1st;  Senate acquitted Secretary Of War, William Belknap. Belknap is the only Cabinet officer ever impeached.
        Alexander Graham Bell, first human voice transmitted on the telephone
        Carpet sweeper invented by Melville R. Bissell, USA

19th President Rutherford Birchard Hayes (b. 1822-d. 1893) Republican Party
Vice-President William Almon Wheeler (b. 1819-d. 1887) Republican Party

1877 -  Refrigerator (railroad) car invented by G. F. Swift
        Glider invented by Otto Lilienthal
        "Canals" on Mars, discovered by Giovanni Schiaparelli, Italy
        Concrete (reinforced) by Joseph Monier, France
        March 5th; Senate began the practice of moving desks according to party division rather than keeping an equal number of desks on each side of the center aisle, to allow all members of each party to sit together.

1878 - Phonograph is patented
Telephone is patented

Emma M. Nutt became the first female telephone operator in the USA for the Telephone Dispatch Co. of Boston

1879 - Electric light bulb invented
        Mary Baker Eddy First American woman to found a lasting American-based religion : The Church of Christ
        Belva Ann Bennett first female lawyer to plead a case before the Supreme Court
        Feb. 14th; Blanche K. Bruce became the first African-American to preside over the Senate.

1880 - Jergens Lotion was created by Andrew Jergens, a former lumberjack
        Feb. 5th; Senate adopted the "Anthony Rule" per Henry B. Anthony. 
Long before the Senate developed the position of majority leader to decide which items on its calendar would be given priority consideration, the “Anthony Rule” attempted to limit floor debate by allowing senators to speak no more than 5 minutes on certain measures before voting.  It has since fallen into disuse, perhaps underscoring a biographer’s assessment that Anthony was “one of the type of senators whose services lie rather in the exercise of judgment and practical wisdom than in any [lasting] contribution to law or practice.”  This was the Senate's first effort to add a cloture provision to its rules.

1881 Mar. 4 - 1881 Sept. 20
20th President James Abraham Garfield (died in office - assassinated) (b. 1831-d. 1881) Republican Party
Vice-President Chester Alan Arthur (b. 1829-d. 1886) Republican Party

21st  President Chester Alan Arthur (b. 1829-d. 1886) Republican Party
Vice-President none

1881 -   Charles Curtis passed the bar exam and became a lawyer.
        Jan. 14th;  Senate agreed to "cause a telephone to be placed at some convenient point, for the use of the Senate, in connection with the general telephone system of the city of Washington".

1883 -  Cholera bacterium discovered by Robert Koch, Germany

1882 -  Electric fan, Schuyler Wheeler, USA
            Electric flatiron, Henry W. Seely, USA

1884 - 1st Skyscraper built, (in Chicago)
       Moses Fleetwood Walker, first black baseball player in the major leagues
       Steam Turbine invented C. A. Parsons
       Rayon invented by H. de Chardonnet
       Fountain Pen invented by L. E. Waterman
       Charles Curtis elected to Shawnee county District Attorney, 2 terms, to 1888
        Bicycle (first modern model) James Starley, England
        Senate provided all members with clerical staff for the first time.
        July 5th; Senate directed the Sargeant-at-Arms and the Architect of the Capitol to rent suitable rooms outside the Capitol for committees and subcommittees -- they decided on the Maltby Building.

1884 Sept 20 The Equal Rights Party was formed during a convention of suffragists in San Francisco

22nd President Stephen Grover Cleveland (b. 1837-d. 1908) Democratic Party
Vice-President Thomas Andrews Hendricks (b. 1819-d. 1885 died in office) Democratic Party

1885    Apache uprising by Geronimo
        Dedication of Washington monument in Washington D.C.
        Coca-Cola was named for its two "medicinal" ingredients, coca leaves extract  (cocaine) & kola nuts
        Automobile (first with internal combustion engine 250 rpm) invented by Karl  Benz, Germany
        Automobile (first with practical high-speed internal combustion engine, 900 rpm), Gottlieb Daimler, Germany

1886 - Dedication of Statue of Liberty in New York
        Grover Cleveland, first President married inside the White House
        World's first chess champion
        Senate passed President Succession Act of Jan. 19th removed the President Pro Tempore from the presidential line of succession (until 1947)

1887 - First US woman mayor : Susanna M. Salter, in Argonia, Kansas
        Air-Inflated tires invented by J. B. Dunlop
        Antibiotics (first demonstration of antibiotic effect) Louis Pasteur, Jules-Franois Joubert, France
Feb. 8 -
    The General Allotment Act for Indians (also know as the Dawes Severalty Act, named for its sponsor and author Senator Henry Laurens Dawes) became law, prepared for the Indian citizenship and to end the reservation system, inaccurately called the "Curtis" Act (by authors, usually by Indians, by people who favor Indians or agaisnt Charles Curtis who was not even elected to the Kansas House of Representatives until 1892, Charles Curtis is wrongfully {blamed} acknowledged as the author of this act). 

1888 - Revolving door was invented by Theophilus Van Kannell
        Adding Machine invented by W. Burroughs
        Camera (hand held) (Kodak) invented by George Eastman, USA
        Feb. 22; Senate began the tradition of the annual reading of George Washington's farewell address.

23rd President Benjamin Harrison (b. 1833-d. 1901) Republican Party
(grandson of President William Henry Harrison)
Vice-President Levi Parsons Morton (b. 1824-d. 1920)  Republican Party

1889  Nov. 2 - 39th State of United States  North Dakota
          Nov. 2 - 40th State of United States  South Dakota
          Nov. 8 - 41st State of United States  Montana
          Nov. 11 - 42nd State of United States  Washington

1890  July 3 - 43rd State of United States   Idaho
          July 10 - 44th State of United States   Wyoming
        August 6th, the first electric chair was used on William Kemmler (invented by Dr. Alphonse Rockwell)
            Antitoxin, diphtheria, Emil Von Behring, Germany
          DAR (Daughters of Americam Revolution) organized

1891 -  Automobile, (first true automobile, not carriage with motor) Ren Panhard,  Emile Lavassor, France

1892    Diesel Engine involved by Rudolph Diesel
            Automobile, (carburetor, spray) Charles E. Duryea, USA
            Electric generator; (alternating current) Nikola Tesla, USA

1893 - 1897
24th President Stephen Grover Cleveland (first President to win non-consecutive terms)  (b. 1837-d. 1908) Democratic Party
Vice-President Adlai Ewing Stevenson (b. 1835-d. 1914) Democratic Party

1893 - First woman on U.S.A. stamp is Queen Isabella of Spain
            Movie projector invented by Thomas Edison
            Zipper invented by W. L. Judson
            Photoelectric Cell invented by Julius Ester
            The first automobile, the Duryea

1895 -  The first Grand Prix of Auto-Racing, held in France
             X-Ray invented by Wilhelm K Rontgen
        Dec. 18; Senate Assistant Doorkeeper Isaac Bassett died; began his Senate service in 1831 as a page, and after 1860 became widely identified as keeper of the Senate's historical lore.

1896  Jan. 4 - 45th State of United States  Utah

1896 - First comic strip was "The Yellow Kid" in New York World, by Richard Felton Outcault
            First modern-day Olympics were held in Athens
            Electric stove, Hadaway, USA

25th President William McKinley (died in office - assassinated by Leon Czolgosz) (b. 1843-d. 1901) Republican Party
Vice-President Garret Augustus Hobart (b. 1844-d. 1899 died in office)  Republican Party
Vice-President Theodore Roosevelt (b. 1858-d. 1919)
Republican Party

1897 - Isolation of Adrenaline by John Jacob Abel, USA

1898 - Bayer was advertising cough medicine containing heroin

1899 -  Aspirin by Dr. Felix Hoffman, Germany

1900 -  Airship (rigid) by Ferdinand Von Zeppelin, Germany
        Kodak Brownie makes photography cheaper and simpler
        Pupin's loading coil reduces telephone voice distortion
        April 6th; Senate revised Rule I to allow for appointment of a presiding officer by the president pro tempore or another senator in the event of the vice president's death.

26th President Theodore Rex Roosevelt (b. 1858-d. 1919) Republican Party
Vice-President Charles Warren Fairbanks (b. 1852-d. 1918) Republican Party

1901 -  First Nobel prizes were awarded,
                     Literature : Rene Sully-Prudhomme
                     Physiology : Emil Von Behring
                     Chemistry : Jacobus Van Hoff
                     Physics : Wilhelm Roetgen
                     Peace : Jean Henri Dunant Frederic Passy
            First sale of phonograph discs made of hard resinous shellac
            First electric typewriter, the Blickensderfer
            Marconi sends a radio signal across the Atlantic
Nov  27 - The Army War College was established in Washington DC

1902 - Germany's Zeiss invents the four-element Tessar camera lens
            Etched zinc engravings start to replace hand cut blocks
            US Navy installs radio telephones aboard ships
            Photoelectric scanning can send and receive a picture
            Trans-Pacific telephone cable connects Canada and Australia

1903 - Dec. 17, Flight of the Wright brothers at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina
            First land speed record in car racing by Alexander Winton
            Electrocardiogram invented by Willem Einthoven
            There are technical improvements in radio, telegraph, phonograph, movies, and printing
             The London Daily Mirror illustrates with only photograph
First female Nobel Prize winners:
           1903 - Physics : Marie Sklodowska Curie
           1905 - Peace : Baroness Bertha Sophie Felicita von Suttner
           1909 - Literature : Selma Ottilia Lovisa Lagerlaf
           1911 - Chemistry: Marie Sklodowska Curie
        March 16th;  Senate Democratic Conference began keeping minutes of its closed-door meetings.

1904 - May Sutton Brandy is first American woman to win the ladies singles tennis championship at Wimbledon
           A telephone answering machine is invented
           Fleming invents the diode to improve radio communication
           Offset lithography becomes a commercial reality
           Hine photographs America's underclass
           "The Great Train Robbery" creates a demand for fiction films
           The first comic book is issued
           The double-sided phonograph disc is invented
        April 28th;  Congress authorized construction of a fireproof Senate office building.

1905 - Electric Iron invented
           In Pittsburgh, the first nickelodeon opens
           In France, Pathe colors black and white films by machine
           In New Zealand, the postage meter is developed
           The telephone "Yellow Pages" phone book is introduced
           The  juke box has 24 choices on it

1906 - Major earthquake in San Francisco, California 
            Fred Astaire made his dance debut at age 7
            First USA Federal Penitentiary building was completed at Leavenworth, Kansas
            In Britain, new process colors books cheaply
            A program of voice and music is broadcast in USA
            Lee de Forest invents the three element vacuum tube
            Dunwoody and Pickard build a crystal-and-cat's-whisker radio
            An animated cartoon film is produced
            Fessenden plays violin for startled ship wireless operators
            An experimental sound-on-film motion picture
            Strow invents automatic dial telephone switching 
  Feb. 17th; novelist David Graham Phillips' "Treason of the Senate" series began publication in Cosmopolitan magazine. This investigative series detailed the relationship between members and corporate interest, and was one factor leading to the direct election reform of the Progressive era.
        Feb. 26th;  Congress authorized funds for construction of a "subway" connecting the Capitol and the Senate office building.

1907  Nov. 16 - 46th State of United States   Oklahoma
        Electric washing machine invented
        Bell and Howell develop a film projection system
        Lumiere invent still color photography
        Lee de Forest begins regular radio music broad casts
        In Russia, Rosing develops theory of television
        Charles Curtis of Kansas became the first Native American (traceable) senator.

1908 - The conception of TV invented by A. A. C. Swinton
            Sulfa drugs invented by Paul Gelmo
            Vacuum cleaner invented
             In USA, Smith develops true color motion pictures

27th President William Howard Taft (b. 1857-d. 1930) Republican Party
Vice-President James Schoolcraft Sherman (b. 1855-d. 1912 died in office) Republican Party

1909 -  First Transcontinental Flight made
        Robert Peary is first to reach the North Pole
        First USA Federal Legislation to prohibit narcotics (opium)
        Radio distress signal saves 1,700 lives after ships collide
        The first broadcast talk show, is about woman's suffrage
        Senate opened its first permanent office building, which in 1972 was named in honor of Senator Richard B. Russell (D-GA)

1910 - Alice Wells is first Policewoman in U.S.A.
            Neon Light bulb is invented by George Claude
            Autopilot (for aircraft) Elmer A. Sperry, USA
            Conditioned  reflex; Ivan Pavlov, Russia
            Sweden's Elkstrom invents "flying spot" camera light beam
April 14th - President William Howard Taft tossed out the first ball of the Washington Nationals-Philadelphia Athletics baseball game. This started a tradition that continues with U.S. Presidents today.

1911 - Ray Harroun is first winner of the Indianapolis 500 car race.
            Air Conditioning invented by W. H. Carrier
            Hydroplane invented by Glenn Curtis
            Atom (nuclear model of) by Ernest Rutherford, England
            Atomic structure (formulated nuclear model of atom by Ernest Rutherford, England
            Efforts are made to bring sound to motion pictures
            Rotogravure aids magazine production of photos
            "Postal Savings System" began

1912  Jan. 6 - 47th State of United States   New Mexico
        Feb. 14 - 48th State of United States  Arizona
        Arthur R. Eldred is first boy to reach the rank of Eagle Scout : the highest rank in the Boy Scouts.
        Autopilot (first successful test) in a Curtiss flying boat
        USA passes law to control radio stations
        Motorized movie cameras replace hand-cranked cameras
        Feedback and heterodyne systems usher in modern radio
        First mail carried by plane
        April 22nd;  Senate Commerce Committee held subcommittee hearings to investigate the Titanic disaster. The committee issued its report on May 28th.

28th President Thomas Woodrow Wilson (b. 1856-d. 1924) Democratic Party
Vice-President Thomas Riley Marshall (b. 1854-d. 1925) Democratic Party

1913 -  Atomic structure (proposed current concept of atomic structure, the Bohr model) Niels Bohr, Denmark
       The portable phonograph is first manufactured
        Type composing machines roll out of the factory
        April 22nd; Senator John W. Kern became the first officially designated Democratic floor leader.
        Constitution was amended (17th Amendment) to provide for direct popular election of senators, ending the system of election by individual state legislatures.

1914-18  World War I (aka "The Great War")

1914 - The opening of the Panama Canal to commercial traffic
        A better triode vacuum tube improves radio reception
        A radio message is sent to an airplane
        In Germany, the first 35 mm still camera, a Leica
        In the USA, Goddard begins rocket experiments
        First transcontinental telephone call
        March 9th;  Senate adopted a rule forbidding smoking on the floor of the Senate because Senator Ben Tillman, recovering from a stroke, found the smoke irritating.
Dec 21 - The 1st feature- length silent film comedy "Tillie's Punctured Romance" was released

1915 - Wrigley's promoted their new spearment-flavored gum by mailing four samples to each of the 1.5 million names listed in the phone book
            Coast-to-Coast Telephone service started
            Refrigerator was invented
            Wireless radio service connects USA and Japan
            Radio-telephone carries first speech across the Atlantic
            "Birth Of A Nation" sets new movie standards
            The first electric loudspeaker

1916 - False eye-lashes were invented by D.W. Griffith, film director
            First Jewish member of Supreme Court, Louis D. Brandeis
            First woman elected to US congress (from Montana), Jeannette
            Rankin, also ONLY legislator to voted against W.W.I and W.W.II
            David Sarnoff envisions radio as a "household utility"
            Radios get first tuners

1917 - Photo compositions begin
        Frank Conrad builds a radio station, later KDKA
        Condenser microphones aids, broadcasting then recordings
        Jan. 22nd;  President Woodrow Wilson delivered his "Peace Without Victory" speech in the Senate Chamber.

1918 - First regular airmail service: Washington D.C. to New York
        Nov. 5th;  Jeannette Rankin became the first woman of a major party to run (unsuccessfully) for a Senate seat. Rankin was currently serving as a member of the House of Representatives.

1919 - People can now dial telephone numbers themselves
            Short-wave radio is invented
            Flip-flop circuit is invented; will help computers to count

1920 - 19th Amendment ratified, Women's Suffrage
            First US woman, Ethelda "Thel" Bleibtrey, to win a gold medal in the Olympics
            First black tennis champion in the US, Lucy Slowe
            Sanitary napkins invented by Kotex
            Radio was invented
            First broadcasting stations are opened
            First cross-country flight in the USA
            Sound recording is done electrically
            Post Office accepts the postage meter
            KDKA  (by Frank Conrad) in Pittsburgh broadcasts first scheduled programs
        March 1st;  Senate Public Law 66-190 became the first statute to be printed on paper instead of parchment
        Nov. 2nd;  Warren G. Harding became the first incumbent senator to be elected president of the United States.

29th President Warren Gamaliel Harding  (died in office) (b. 1865-d. 1923) Republican Party
Vice-President John Calvin Coolidge (b. 1872-d. 1933) Republican Party

1921 -  First Miss America Pageant was created in Atlantic City, won by Margaret Gorman, she was 16 years old, and her measurements were "30-25-32"
             Adhesive bandages were invented by Johnson & Johnson
             Quartz crystals keep radio signals from wandering
             The word "robot" enters the language
             Western Union begins wire photo service

1922 - First shopping mall opened by National Department stores, in St. Louis, Missouri.
        Sound Motion Pictures invented by T. W. Case
        Insulin discovered by Sir Frederick G. Banting
        A commercial is broadcast, $ 100 for ten minutes
        Technicolor introduces two-color process for movies
        Germany's UFA produces a film with an optical sound track
        First 3-D movie, requires glasses with one side red and the other side green
        Singers desert phonograph horn mouths for acoustic studios
        "Nanook of the North", is the first documentary
        Oct. 3rd;  Rebecca Felton (D-GA) became the first woman appointed to the Senate. She served in the Senate for just 24 hours, from noon Nov. 21 to noon Nov. 22.

30th President John Calvin Coolidge (b. 1872-d. 1933) Republican Party
Vice-President Charles Gates Dawes (b. 1865-d. 1951) Republican Party

1923 - Butterfingers candy bar first produced in Chicago by Curtiss Candy Co.
        Traffic Signal invented by Garrett A. Morgan
        Zworykin's electronic iconoscope camera tube and kinescope display tube are developed
        People on one ocean ship can talk to other people on another ocean ship
        Ribbon microphone becomes the studio standard
        16 mm nonflammable film makes its debut
        A picture, broken into dots, is sent by wire
        Kodak introduces home movie equipment
        Neon advertising signs first used
        Oct. 22nd;  Committee on Public Lands and Surveys began a series of hearings to investigate the leasing of government oil reserves in Wyoming to oil men and developers. This became known as the "Teapot Dome" investigations

1924 - First flight made around the world
             Indians in U.S.A. got the right to vote (though some states refused to allow this until 1948) 
             Paper tissues were invented by Kleenex
             Notebooks get first spiral bindings
             The Eveready Hour is the first sponsored radio program
             At KDKA, Frank Conrad sets up a short-wave radio transmitter
             Coast-to-coast air-mail service is daily
             Pictures are transmitted over telephone lines
             There are 2,500,000 radio sets in the USA
Sept 28 Two Army planes landed in Seattle, having completed the round-the-world flight in 175 days

1925 - First woman state governor, Nellie Ross Taylor (Wyoming)
        Quick-Frozen foods invented by Clarence Birdseye
        The Leica 35 mm sets a new standard
        Commercial picture is sent by radio service across the USA
        An all-electric phonograph is built
        The first moving image are the blades or a model windmill being telecast
        From France, comes a wide-screen film
        March 5th;  Senate Republicans officially designated their floor leader for the first time -- Charles Curtis (R-KS)
Dec 12 - The 1st motel opened in San Luis Obispo, California

1926 - First American woman to swim the English Channel, it took her 14 hours and 39 minutes (she broke the existing men's record)
        Commercial picture facsimile radio service across the Atlantic
        Some radio get automatic volume control, a mixed blessing
        The Book-Of-The-Month club is started
        In USA, first 16 mm is shot
        Goddard launches liquid-fuel rocket
        Permanent radio network, NBC, is formed
        Bell Telephone Labs transmit film by television
        Senator Smith W. Brookhart (R-IA) became the first previously seated senator to be unseated following a recount of election ballots
Oct 31 - Magician Harry Houdini died in Detroit at age 52

1927 - First Academy Awards were presented
        First talking motion picture "The Jazz Singer", the lead is Al Jolson
        First person to fly solo across the Atlantic, Charles Lindbergh
        Brassiere was invented by Caresse Crosby
        "Big Bang" theory (the universe originated with a huge explosion) George LeMaitre, Belgium
        NBC formed two radio networks, CBS is formed
        Farnsworth assembles a complete electronic system
        Movietone offers newsreels in sound
        US Radio declares public ownership of the airwaves
        Technicolor debuts
        Negative feedback makes hi-fi possible
        In McGrain v. Daugherty, the U.S. Supreme Court firmly established the general power of congressional committees to compel testimony from witnesses.
        Dec. 5th; Democratic Leader Joseph T. Robinson (D-AR) started the tradition of party floor leaders sitting at the front row, center-aisle desk in the Senate Chamber.

1928 - The "Oscar" statuette was designed by Cedric Gibbons
        Magnetic Recording Tape invented by Fritz Pfleumer
        Penicillin discovered by Sir Alexander Fleming
        Baird demonstrates color TV on electro-mechanical system
        The teletype machine makes its debut
        Television sets are put in three homes, programming begins
        Baird invents a video disc to record television
        In an experiment, television crosses the Atlantic
        In Schenectady, NY, the first scheduled television broadcasts
        Steamboat Willie re-introduced as Mickey Mouse
        A motion picture is shown in color
        Times Square gets moving headlines in electric lights
        IBM adopts the 80-column punched card
        Dec. 7th; Octaviano Larrazolo (R-NM) became the first Hispanic senator

31st President Herbert Clark Hoover (b. 1874-d. 1964) Republican Party
Vice-President Charles Curtis (b. 1860-d. 1936) Republican Party

1929 -  First "Oscar" winner for "Best Actress", Janet Gaynor
         First "Oscar" winner for "Best Actor", Emil Jannings
         Stock market crash in October
        Yo-Yo invented by Donald F. Duncan
        Car radio by William Lear and Elmer Wavering, USA, manufactured by Galvin Manufacturing Co. "Motorola"
        Experiments begin on electronic color television
        Telegraph ticker sends 500 characters per minute
        Ocean ship passengers can phone relatives on shore
        Brokers can watch stock prices on an automated electric board
        The car radio is first brought out
        In Germany, magnetic sound recording is done on plastic tape
        The first television studio in London is built
        Air mail is first flown from Miami to South America
        Bell Lab transmits picture stills in color by mechanical scanning
        Zworykin demonstrates first cathode-ray tube "kinescope" receiver, 60 scan lines
        March 4th; First radio broadcast from the Senate chamber occurred in connection with the vice presidential inauguration

1930 - First Airline hostess: Ellen Church, on United Airlines
            Bathysphere invented by Charles W. Beebe
            Photo flashbulbs replace dangerous flash powder
            "Golden Age" of radio begins in U.S.
             Lowell Thomas begins first regular network newscast
             TV's based on British mechanical system roll off factory line
             Bush's differential analyzer introduces the computer
            AT&T tries the picture telephone

1931 - "Star Spangled Banner" proclaimed the United States National Anthem
            First woman in organized baseball, Jackie Mitchell (age 19) as a pitcher
            First woman to win the Nobel prize for Peace, Jane Addams
            Cyclotron invented by Ernest O. Lawrence, USA
            Commercial teletype service begins
            Electronic TV broadcasts in Los Angeles and Moscow
            Exposure meters go on sale to photographers
            NBC experimentally doubles transmission to 120-line TV
            Deuterium (heavy hydrogen) by Harold Urey, USA

1932 - Jan. 12th; First woman elected to US Senate for her dead husbands's seat, Hattie Ophelia Wyatt Caraway (D-AR), re-elected twice, she served until 1945.
        First transatlantic solo flight by a woman, Amelia Earhart
        Cardiac Pacemaker invented by A. S. Hyman
        Electron Microscope invented by Max Knoll
        Room air-conditioner invented by Willis Carrier
        Disney adopts a 3-color Technicolor process for cartoons
        Kodak introduces 8 mm film for home movies
        Stereophonic sound used in a motion picture "Napoleon"
        Zoom lenses is invented, but a practical model is 21 yrs in the future
        The light meter is invented
        NBC and CBS allow prices to be mentioned in commercials
        The Times of London uses its New Times Roman typeface

32nd President Franklin Delano Roosevelt (died in office) (b. 1882-d. 1945) Democratic Party
Vice-President John Nance Garner (b. 1868-d. 1967) Democratic Party
Vice-President Henry Agard Wallace (b. 1888-d. 1965) Democratic Party
Vice-President Harry S (does not stand for anything) Truman (b. 1884-d. 1972) Democratic Party

1933 -  First woman in US Presidential Cabinet, Frances Perkins (Secretary of Labor)
        Armstrong invents FM, but real application is 20 yrs in the future
        Singing telegrams were started
        Phonograph records go to stereo
        Multiple-flash sports photography begins
        March 9th;  Senate passed the Emergency Banking Act after only several hours of debate
Nov 27 - The United States and the Soviet Union established diplomatic relations

1934 - The first Masters Golf Tournament was won by Horton Smith
            The first quintuplets (5) born to survive infancy; Marie, Cecile, Yvonne, Emilie, and Annette Dionne
             First drive-in movie theater opens in New Jersey
             Associated Press starts wire photo service
             Communications Act of 1934 created FCC
             Half of the homes in the U.S. have radios
             Mutual Radio Network begins operations
             In Germany, a mobile Television truck roams the streets
             In Scotland, teletype setting sets type by phone line
             Three color Technicolor first used in live action films

1935 - Bugs Bunny's original name was Happy Rabbit
        German single lens reflex roll film synchronized for flash bulbs
        In Germany, audio tape recorders go on sale
        IBM's electric typewrite comes off the assembly line
        The Penguin paperback book sells for the price of 10 cigarettes
        All electric VHF television comes out of the lab
        Eastman-Kodak develops Kodachrome color film
        Nielsen's Audimeter tracks radio audiences
        July 1st;  Senate established the office of the Senate Parliamentarian and promoted journal clerk Charles Watkins to the new position. He continued as journal clerk for two more years, serving in both positions, Watkins remained parliamentarian until his retirement in 1964.
        Sept. 10th; Senator Huey P. Long was assassinated in Baton Rouge, Louisiana

1936 - The Berlin Olympics are televised closed circuit
            Bell Labs invents a voice recognition machine
            Kodachrome file sharpens color photography
            Co-axial cable connects New York to Philadelphia
            Alan Turing's "On Computable Numbers" describes a general purpose computer

1937  March 25th;  Senate agreed to transfer its historical records to the newly opened National Archives. Previously, the Senate clerks had kept official records in the Capitol's attic and basement store rooms where they became victim to vermin, moisture and souvenir hunters.
        Aug. 13th;  Vice President John Nance Garner announced a policy of priority recognition to majority and minority leaders in the Senate chamber

1939  Senate passed a resolution providing that "the Chaplain shall open each day's session of the Senate with prayer"
        Oct. 17th;  Columbia Pictures released Frank Capra's film Mr. Smith Goes to Washington. 45 senators attended a world premiere, held at Washington's Constitution Hall

1941  March 1st;  Senate resolution created "The Truman Committee" the Special Committee to Investigate the National Defense Program

1943  Oct. 19th;  Hattie Ophelia Wyatt Caraway (D-AR) became the first woman to preside over the Senate.

1949 Sept 15 "The Lone Ranger" starring Clayton Moore as the masked hero and Jay Silverheels as "Tonto", premiered on ABC.

33rd President Harry S (does not stand for anything) Truman (b. 1884-d. 1972) Democratic Party
Vice-President Alben William Barkley (b. 1877-d. 1956) Democratic Party

1945  July 2nd;  President Harry S Truman addressed the Senate on the United Nations charter

1946  President Harry S Truman signed the Legislative Reorganization Act sweeping away obsolete committees, eliminating redundancy in committee work, and establishing an effective congressional staff system

1947   Jan. 2nd;  Senate established the Committee on Armed Services
        Implementing aspects of the Reorganization Act , each member and committee hired professional staff for the first time
        March 18th;  Senate Rules Committee gave press gallery accreditation to Louis R. Lautier, making him the first African-American reporter to sit in that gallery in 70 years.

1948  Nov. 2nd; Russell Long of Louisiana became the first senator previously occupied by both his father (Huey P. Long) and mother (Rose Long)

34th President David Dwight Eisenhower (Ike) (b. 1890-d. 1969) Republican Party
Vice-President Richard Milhous Nixon (b. 1913-d. 1994) Republican Party

1959  Jan. 3 - 49th State of United States  Alaska

1959  Aug. 21 - 50th State of United States  Hawaii

35th President John (Jack) Fitzgerald Kennedy (died in office - assassinated)  (b. 1917-d. 1963) Democratic Party
Vice-President Lyndon Baines Johnson (b. 1903-d. 1973) Democratic Party

36th President Lyndon Baines Johnson (b. 1908-d. 1973) Democratic Party

Vice-President Hubert Horatio Humphrey (b. 1911-d. 1973) Democratic Party

1969 The television series "The Brady Bunch" premiered

37th President Richard Milhous Nixon (b. 1913-d. 1994) (resigned) Republican Party
Vice-President Spiro Theodore Agnew (resigned) (b. 1918-d. 1996) Republican Party
Vice-President Gerald Rudolph Ford (b. 1913) only appointed Vice-President  (NOT elected) Republican Party

38th President Gerald Rudolph Ford (b. 1913) Republican Party Vice-President Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller Jr. (b. 1908-d. 1979) Republican Party

39th President James Earl (Jimmy) Carter Jr. (b. 1924) Democratic Party Vice-President Walter Frederick (Fritz) Mondale (b. 1928) Democratic Party

40th President Ronald Wilson Reagan (b. 1911) Republican Party
Vice-President George Bush Herbert Walker (b. 1924) Republican Party

1982 - The Vietnam Veterans Memorial was dedicated in Washington DC, Nov  13

1983 - President Reagan signed a bill establishing the 3rd Monday in Jan a federal holiday, in honor of civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr

41st President George Herbert Walker Bush (b. 1924) Republican Party
Vice-President James Danforth "Dan" Quayle (b. 1947) Republican Party

42nd President William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton (b. 1946) Democratic Party
Vice-President Albert "Al" Arnold Gore (b. 1948)  Democratic Party

2001- 2009
43rd President George Wallace Bush (b. 1946) Republican Party
Vice-President Richard "Dick" Bruce Cheney (b. 1941)

2009- (re-elected for second term 2012)
44th President Barack Hussein Obama (b. 1961) Democratic Party
Vice-President  Joseph "Joe" Robinette Biden Junior (b. 1942) Democratic Party

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Overview of Charles Curtis life         

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Timeline A:  The Indians in Kansas

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Biography ACharles Curtis and his extended family genealogy.

Biography B :  Charles Curtis (before going into Politics)

Politics  and Beliefs of Charles Curtis

Legacy   left by Charles Curtis

Memorials  and donations

Charles Curtis home in Topeka, Kansas

Signature Bldg.  New Kansas State Office Building named for Charles Curtis

Resources  and recommended books for reading.


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